Category Archives: Wicca Hall

Basics of Wicca

To Know, To Dare, To Will, To Be Silent

The Witches’ Pyramid
also known as the 4 Powers of the Magus

To Know – (Air Element) means to know what you want and what you are doing, intellectually and practically. To have knowledge of spellwork, magick, and ritual. To know what may work best in your situation, what you are able to handle, are comfortable with, how to execute what you want. Most importantly, to know what you want to accomplish. The more concise you can make your statement of purpose, the better and more effective your magick will be. Keep journals or notebooks on work you are doing, i.e. spells or rituals – what you used, astrological info. (time of day, month, hour, moon phase, etc.), colors, incense, oils, and so forth. You may even record other spells you’ve found and adapt them. Research and assembly of materials take up most of the time. If it’s worth doing a spell or magick it’s worth putting in the time to do it right.

To Dare – (Water Element) means to have the gumption to get it done. You can say you have the will to do something, but unless you physically move nothing will happen. You need to do the research, the preparation and actually physically perform the magick or nothing will manifest. I realize that sounds as simple as it comes…but this is where many rituals, spells and magick fail. You’ve heard the expression that “actions speak louder than words”, nothing could be more true here. You must invest your time and energy to put a magickal act in motion.

To Will – (Fire Element) refers to the desire, drive or internal fire. The emotional and psychic energy to accomplish your purpose. You can be very educated and have all the information of a book inside your mind and be perfectly practiced at it, but you have to have your own emotional energy to put into the thing, or it won’t go anywhere. The will is the energy you draw from when you raise the power for the magick. If you truly don’t have the desire, drive or internal fire it will never manifest.

To Keep Silent – (Earth Element) is the last but certainly not least. You know what you want, you have the desire for it, you have performed the act to make it manifest…now you must let it go. If you are constantly talking and dwelling on it, you haven’t let it go. You are still tied to it and are in effect calling it back every time you mention or discuss it, thus you are not releasing it to the Gods to let them handle it. In addition, there are people who may not like what you’re doing and/or may not approve of the methods you used thus their negative thinking, words and actions could effect the outcome.

To be Silent also harkens back to the burning times. When to discuss magick, spells or rituals could get you killed. It is a belief among some traditions that you must never reveal others within the Craft, you must never reveal true identities (thus the reason for magickal names), you must never reveal the location of your circle or Covenstead, for to do so would certainly mean death for not only you but others as well….So be Silent!


The Witches’ Pyramid
also known as the 4 Powers of the Magus

To know, to dare, to will, to be silent.

I don’t know for a fact, but I strongly suspect this phrase to be another hand-me-down of ceremonial magic due both to its content and its alternate title – a magus was a magician or astrologer in ancient times. The term originates from Persia, where it once referred to members of the hereditary Zoroastrian and pre-Zoroastrian class of priests.1

The Pyramid refers mostly to the practicing of magic.

To know – Ceremonial magic, especially that which survived through the Christian era, requires extensive knowledge of numerology, astrology, mathematics and more. While such studies have little place in Wicca, we still value knowledge. Everything we learn contributes another piece of the overall picture. It’s why so many of complain today of Bunnies who “read one book and think themselves expert.” Wicca also requires knowledge and understanding of the gods – not book learning, but personal experience.

To dare – One must be willing to take risks, to approach their tasks boldly and face the mysteries we investigate and experience. Wicca is not all goodness and light. One must be willing and able to face down the bad as well as the good, embracing the whole. However, this does not mean we should enter into things brashly or without thought, for that would negate the first phrase, “to know”.

To will – If you do not believe you can succeed, you will not succeed. This is more than a simple acknowledgment – it must be a deep and heartfelt belief. You cannot fake you way past the gods. And yet, you should not shy away from those things that might contradict your belief, as that would negate the first two phrases, “to know” and “to dare”. Crowley’s Thelema centers solidly around the concept of power of will.

To be silent – There are several meanings attributed to this phrase. The one I find most appropriate in this day and age is that one should not brag or threaten others concerning their talents with magic. Magic is a divine gift, not some big, shiny stick to wave in crowds for attention.

Some say that magic loses its potency when it is openly discussed, or discussed at all.

Others attribute the phrase to the Burning Times, and that it was a command of self-preservation – advertising otherworldly powers won one a quick trip to the stake.

Magickal Tools

The Working Tools
by the Farrar’s

There are no magical supply shops, so unless you are lucky enough to be given or sold tools, a poor witch must extemporise. But when made you should be able to borrow or obtain an Athame. So having made your circle, erect an altar. Any small table or chest will do. There must be fire on it (a candle will suffice) and your book. For good results incense is best if you can get it, but coals in a chafing dish burning sweet-smelling herbs will do. A cup if you would have cakes and wine and a platter with the signs drawn into same in ink, showing a pentacle. A scourge is easily made (note, the scourge has eight tails
and five knots in each tail). Get a white-hilted knife and a wand (a sword is not necessary). Cut the marks with Athame. Purify everything, then consecrate your tools in proper form and ever be properly prepared. But ever remember, magical operations are useless unless the mind can be brought to the proper attitude, keyed to the utmost pitch.

Affirmations must be made clearly and the mind should be inflamed with desire. With this frenzy of will you may do as much with simple tools as with the most complete set. But good and especially ancient tools have their own aura. They do help to bring about that reverential spirit, the desire to learn and develop your powers. For this reason witches ever try to obtain tools from sorcerers, who being skilled men make good tools and consecrate them well, giving them mighty power. But a great witch’s tools also gain much power; and you should ever strive to make any tools you manufacture of the finest materials you can obtain, to the end that they may absorb your power the more easily. And of course if you may inherit or obtain another witch’s tools, power will flow from them.


Book of Shadows

The Book of Shadows is the workbook of the witch. In it is recorded: Rituals guidelines, Invocations, Spells, Runes, Rules of a particular Coven or Tradition, Symbols, Poems, Chants, and anything else of use to the witch during ritual.

Traditionally the Book of Shadows was always hand written by the individual. A common custom was for new initiates into a Coven, is to hand copy his teacher’s Book of Shadows exactly as it appeared, then later to add his own material as he progressed in the craft. Today with the advantages of technology, they are often typed, photocopied, and even computerized onto Floppy Disc’s.

To make your own Book of Shadows, you can use any form of blank book, but perhaps the best to use are those of a loose-leave nature, thus allowing pages to be shuffled around when preparing for rituals.



The athame is the traditional ritual dagger of the witch. Commonly it has a black handle and steel – double-edged blade. Many Wiccans engrave the handle or blade with magickal symbols indicative of deities, spirits, or the elements as sources of power.

The athame is a tool of command; used to direct what power we pass through it. It is used to cast circles by tracing the circumference, to charge and consecrate objects and banish negative energies. In most traditions, the Athame is never used as a mundane knife for cutting purposes etc., being used strictly of magickal purposes only.

The athame is one of the elemental tools of the craft, and in most traditions it is associated with the elements of Fire, in others it is associated with Air. The phallic symbolism of the knife links it with the God.



The bell is a ritual tool of invocation and banishment. The bell is a feminine symbol of the creative force, that of the Goddess. The bell can be rung to indicate the start of a rite by banishing negative influences before the ritual begins. Often it is used to invoke the Goddess during ritual, or sounded at the four quarters to call forth such spirits as the Watchers and Elementals.

Bells can be used to guard the home by warding off evil spells and spirits, or evoking good energies when placed in cupboards or hung on doors. Hung from a cord, the bell symbolizes the human soul suspended between heaven and earth.


Broom or Besom

The broom is a ritual tool of the witch, sacred to both Goddess and the God. The God – through its symbolic phallic shape, The Goddess – through its three- piece make up, the stick, brush and binding cord being symbolic of the triformis aspect of the Goddess.

Traditionally the broom was made from three different woods. Ash for the handle, Birch twigs for the brush and Willow for the binding cord. Ash is protective and has command over the four elements. Birch is purifying and draws spirits to one’s service. Willow is sacred to the Goddess.

The broom is used for a variety of purposes. Generally, the broom is used to purify and protect. It is used to ritually cleanse an area before magick is performed, by symbolically sweeping away negative energies and astral build up. It is used to guard the home and persons within against psychic attack or evil curses, by placing the broom across the threshold, windowsills and doorways. Also place it under the bed or a pillow to protect the sleeper.

Traditionally and perhaps the use which most people identify it with, are the old wedding ceremonies of the Gypsies and the early American slaves, where a couple leapt over the broom to ensure fertility, domestic harmony and longevity. Today, pagan hand-fasting rituals often include a broom jump.

Witches’ Broom/Besom

The Witches’ broom is as much a part of the Craft as the pointed hat or cauldron. Once charged with magical intent, the Witches’ broom, or besom, can serve many purposes. It can direct energy like a wand or athame. You can even cast a circle with it. And as we’ll see here, it is perfect for protecting the home. First pluck three straws from your broom and light them like a candle. Carry them through your home like a smudge stick to clear out any negativity. For protection, sprinkle some salt near your front door, then sweep the salt away from your home. To bless a new home, anoint the tips of the bristles with a bit of honey and sweep your front porch. And if a grouch has just left your home, sprinkle some ground cloves at your front door, grab your trusty broom, and sweep his energy away.



The cauldron is probably the tool most associated with witchcraft and is steeped in magickal tradition and mystery. The cauldron is the container in which transmutation, germination, and transformations may occur. It is symbolic of the womb of the Goddess, and is the manifested essence of femininity and fertility. Everything is born from the cauldron of the Goddess and everything returns back to it. It is also symbolic of the elements of Water, reincarnation, immortality, and inspiration.

In ritual the cauldron is used as a container for making brews and potions, or to contain a small fire for the use with spells. It can also be used for scrying (divination) by filling it with water and gazing into its depths.

In ancient times the cauldron was used as a cooking vessel and for brew making. Traditionally it was made from cast iron, resting on three legs and has an opening smaller than its widest part. Cauldrons were made in many sizes but can be difficult find, so you will need to persevere if you want one.



Can be either a heavy string used in binding & releasing magick, or it can refer to the piece of apparel circling the magician’s waist. In many covens and magickal lodges, the color of the cord indicates the wearer’s degree of attainment.

Another Tradition says that cords are of importance in initiate groups, in which cords often symbolize the bond of love and responsibi1ity shared by the members. Cords are also used in some initiation rites. Cords can certainly be used by the Solitary wiccan, but needn’t be constantly on the altar. The cords are truly tools of coven working.



The pentacle is a traditional tool of the craft. Originally, it is thought, adopted from ceremonial magic? It is usually a round solid disc often made from stone, wood, or cooper. On the disc is engraved or painted the five pointed star (Pentagram), inside a circle. In some traditions other symbols are added indicative of deities, spirits, or the elements as sources of power.

The pentacle is normally the centerpiece on the altar. Objects are placed on it to be consecrated or charged. Such things as amulets, charms and tools are placed on it, as is the salt and water for blessing.

The pentacle is one of the elemental tools of the craft, and represents the elements of Earth. It is sometimes used to summon the Gods and Goddesses.


The Chalice or Cup

The Chalice is one of the four elemental tools of witchcraft and represents the elements of Water. It is a symbol of containment and often represents the womb of the Goddess. The base is symbolic of the material world, the stem symbolizes the connection between man and spirit and the rim or opening symbolically receives spiritual energy.

The chalice can be made of any material, in times of old – Horns, Shells and Gourds were used to hold sacred liquids during ritual, and then in later times -Silver became the preferred material, having long been associated with the moon and the Goddess. The chalice is used to hold the blessed water and wine during ritual. It is traditional in many covens to pass the chalice around all members, who then take a drink as a token of unity.



The censer is an incense burner used to contain burning incense during ritual. Any type of censer can be used, even a simple bowl filled with sand will do. The censer represents the elements of Air and is normally placed before or beside the images of the Goddess and God on the altar.



The wand is one of the prime magical tools of the witch. Traditionally the wand was made from the wood of a sacred tree. These include the Willow, Elder, Oak, Apple, Peach, Hazel and Cherry, to mention just a few. Its length should approximate the crook of the elbow to the middle of the index finger. These days many modern materials are used instead, and even tipped with crystals and gems.

The wand is a tool of invocation, used to evoke Gods, Goddesses and Spirits. It is also used to bestow blessings, charge objects and draw down the moon during ritual.

The wand is one of the elemental tools of the craft and in most traditions represents the elements of Air, for other traditions it represents the elements of Fire.


White-Handled Knife or Boline

The Boline or White-Handled knife as it is now known, is the practical knife of the craft. Traditionally it was used to harvest herbs and had a blade in the form of a small sickle. Today it is normally a mundane knife used for cutting and carving. It has a white handle to differentiate it from the Athame, which has a black handle and is used only for magickal purposes. The boline is used to cut wands and herbs, to mark and carve candles with symbols and to cut cords for use in magick. Any other ritual function requiring the use of a knife, such as cutting flowers for the altar, can be performed with the boline.


Crystal Sphere

Also called a Crystal Ball. Most crystal balls on the market today are made of glass, leaded glass, or even plastic. Genuine quartz crystal spheres can be determined by their high prices and inclusions or irregularities. The crystal has long been used in contemplative divination. The diviner gazes into the ball until the psychic faculties blossom and images seen in the mind or projected by it into the depths of the crystal reveal the necessary information. Its shape is Goddess symbolic, and its icy cold temperature is
symbolic of the depths of the sea, the Goddess’ domain.

Make your own Crystal Ball

Use a clear glass filled to the brim with water, seat it on a piece of black velvet, in a low lighted area – like a single candle placed behind you, so as not to reflect too much light onto the glass itself. You can use incense to set the atmosphere (Stands are usually preferred when using balls).

Learn to gaze, not stare into the glass of water. Do not be afraid to blink your eyes, just relax. Breathe deeply; inhaling fully and exhaling fully. Do not try and picture anything while you are doing this – and do not gaze for too long – not more than ten minutes, maybe push it to fifteen, no longer. If nothing happens, do not give up, just put it away and try again another time. You will eventually see a picture within the glass, maybe with a foggy like smoke that will fill the glass as well, maybe not. Most see moving pictures.
What you see may be symbolic – interpreting can be a problem, you must read into what it is you are seeing. Like for instance, the dog was running through the woods and came to a split – the person you are reading will soon have a decision to make, something like that. We are going back to that dream interpretation conversation of many moons ago. I would suggest meditating before you gaze on what it is you are wanting to know, then fix your gaze with NOTHING on your mind. After readings begin to be seen, you could gaze for half an hour, but I wouldn’t recommend any longer. It is draining.

After you have figured out if this is for you, you can purchase a ball – chose a comfortable size. The larger they are the greater the chance of an imperfection. The material can be anything that is clear enough to view in- glass, quartz, amethyst or even rose quartz can be used. Be careful not to scratch them.

Once you perfect this art then the imperfections are not as important. Every full moon it should be washed and dried and exposed to moonlight. Never expose it to sunlight. If you choose one of quartz it will emit energy as all minerals do which may help in your readings. It is kind of like the 3D pictures, once you see it, you wonder why you never could before.


Smudge Sticks

You can make smudge sticks out of other herbs besides Sage. You take the herbs when they are still fresh and bind them with cotton twine or string(must be cotton as synthetics will melt and give off possibly toxic fumes). You’ll want to use branches that are about 6 to 8 inches long and when you wrap them do so in a criss-cross manner to make a stick. Once you have a nice tightly wrapped stick wrap the string tightly around the base several times and then give it a nice tight knot. You then want to hang the bundle in a nice dry place so it can dry and won’t get moldy. Make sure your stick is nice and dry before using it.
Using already dried herbs can be difficult since they will crumble when you wrap them.

Some herbs I’ve heard being used in smudge sticks are rosemary, pinon, pine, juniper, cedar, mugwort,
sweetgrass, lavender, copal, vervain, peppermint, St. John’s wort, hyssop, of course sage, or a mixture.


Mini Altar Pouch

Tools for pouch

Thimble- Chalice
Coin with a pentagram etched into it- pantame or altar pentagram
Small twig-wand
Shell- Represents the Goddess
Small piece of Antler horn- Represents the God
2 small candles- altar candles
Ground up herbs for incense (or a stick/cone)
Sea Salt- for purification
Small bottle of oil – for anointing
9 ft cord
Small finger bowl
Small stone that is small, smooth and round to represent Earth
Small Feather – Color of your choice (white or yellowish is best) to
represent Air
Small candle to represent Fire
Small amount of Ash to represent Spirit
Small vessel of pure water to represent Water
You may add gifts of your choice to give to the God and Goddess or the spirits.

Consecration of the pouch

Present filled pouch to all four elements (air, fire, water, and earth) and say:

Blessed be by the spirits of East,
Blessed be by the spirits of South,
Blessed be by the spirits of West,
Blessed be by the spirits of North.

Bless the pouch by touching it on each element. Always start in the East for a gesture of power by tracing a crescent moon or a pentagram on it. Once this is completed say:

O Great (Deity names) bless and empower this pouch and all this is within it. Making it a bridge to power, I am linked to thee and you are linked to nature. We are 1 from 3, we are the triangle manifest in the names of (Deities). So be it done!!!!

This is a larger version of this which I created. The list is not set in concrete. You do not need every item or you can exchange them. Remember, the most powerful tool a witch has is their mind. As we can only perceive reality, we can bend it by changing states of consciousness. The universe is like a web, we can change the strands, and we can even break them with our magick. Be careful of what you do. Before every magickal working ask yourself:

‘Do I dare disturb the fragile energies of the universe?’


In The Closet?

If you have to keep your magickal practices quiet, here are some ways to work magick that are more subtle:

*Incorporate angels in your decorating scheme. Most people don’t question the positive energy of angels.

*Sew herbs into the lining of drapes or place under rugs.

*Draw protective sigils on the back of floor mats.

*Slip stick incense into drinking straws. Keep the straws in their original box.

*Convert a bread box to store magickal tools or notes.

*Use trial-size products, use the contents, then convert them for storage of oils, powdered incense or holy water.

*Draw a magickal symbol for abundance beside each deposit entry in your checkbook.

*Mist ironable clothing with empowered water. Iron. Chant as the steam rises.

source: Silver Ravenwolf’s To Light a Sacred Flame


Tools of a Kitchen Witch

BLENDER : Mingling with others, Stirring up energy

COOKBOOK : Book of Shadows, Excellence, Virtue

COOKIE TIN : Sweet things in life, Pleasure

CRISPER : Invigoration and Restoration

CUPBOARDS : Savings, Supplies, Providence

DISH TOWEL : Stricture, Determined precision

DISHWASHER : Leisure, The Water Element, Convenience

DRAIN : Troubles, Burdens, Bad habits

DRAWERS : Hidden matters, Material goods

FOOD WRAP : Prudence, Conservation, Control, Secrets

FORK : Piercing, Penetrating, Perception

FUNNEL : Flow, Unhindered order, Coaxing energy along

KNIFE : Cutting away, Sharpness of mind, Separation

MEASURING CUP : Evaluation, Allotment, Caution

MICROWAVE : Acceleration, Legal expedition

OVEN: Passion, Fertility, Fire Element

OVEN BURNERS : The Four Directons/Elements

OVEN FAN : The Air Element, Movement, Clearing vision

PITCHER : Abundance, Invigoration, Refreshment

REFRIGERATOR : Cooling temper, Preservation, Protection

ROLLING PIN : Discipline, Moderation, Control

SIFTER : Sorting out confusion, Organization, Filtering negativity

SPATULA : Sensibility, Recycling, Changing directions

STEAMER : Slow processes, Even temperament

TEA KETTLE : Divination, Alertness, Kinship, Health

THERMOMETER : Observations Skills, Analysis

WHISK : Excitement, Increasing bounty

WINDOW : Winds of change, Refreshment, Vital energy

source: Patrica Telesco, “A Kitchen Witch’s Cookbook”


Magickal Tools Cleansing

It stands to reason that our magickal tools should be cleansed periodically, and the waning Moon is the best time for that task. Gather up your tools and place them on a clean cloth away from your altar. Assemble a bowl of salt water, a burning smudge incense blend, a smudging feather or fan, some clean cloths and a white candle. Light the white candle and invoke your guardians. Begin a methodic cleaning of your tools, wiping down with salt water those that can be exposed to water without harm, and then passing them through the smoke from the smudge while focusing on clearing and cleansing them from unnecessary influences. For items that cannot get wet, pass them three times through the smoke from the smudge or hold them near to the smoke while directing it with the feather or the fan. Thank your guardians and return your tools to their proper places.

By: Winter Wren



Elements are very important to the wiccan religion. They make up everything on
this earth. Each element has certain magickal properties as well, enabling you
to call upon it during spells, to further add to it’s effectiveness.

When using an element in a spell or ritual, you typically use some sort of item
to represent it. These ritualistic items are listed below along with the
properties of each element.



Astrological Rulers: Jupiter, Mercury

Keys: Life Principle, Intellect, Raphael (instructor, traveller, healer)

Rules: mind, essential qualities, spiritual plane, knowledge, abstract learning, theories, windy or high places, breath, speech, Plegmatic; Thinking; weak inhibitory

Virtues: gregarious, diligent, optimistic, dexterity, joie-de-vivre, persuasive, friendly, healthy, knowledgeable

Vices: frivolity, boasting, absent mindedness, rootless, easily distracted, loquacious, tends to intellectualize emotions (rather than experience them)

Spring & Sunrise
East, Eurus
Colour: yellow

Symbols: topaz, galbanum, aspen, frankincense, vervain, birds, eagle & hawk

Tools: wand, censer (arrow stabs air & conveys message Outer to Inner)

Spirits: sylphs under Paralda (very hard to see & know, teach mind control and how to level out your thinking processes)

Shortage: mind blank, shortness of breath, non-comprehension of known data

Excess: “gas bloat”, inability to focus attention, “spacey” thoughts



Astrological Rulers: Sun, Mars, Jupiter

Keys: Light Principle, Action, Michael (victor over ignorance)
Rules: force, energy, spirit, heat, mental plane, blood, sap, life, will, surgery, destruction, purification, hearth fires, volcanoes, explosions, Choleric; Intuitive; lively

Virtues: courageous, self-assertive, chivalrous, enthusiastic, passionate, experienced, virile

Vices: self-centred, ruthless, fanaticism, vindictiveness, anger, hatred

Midsummer & Noon
South, Notus
Colour: red

Symbols: fire opal, almond (in flower), garlic, hibiscus, pepper, olibanum

Tools: scourge, sword, athame

Spirits: salamanders under Djinn (elusive & hostile, teach power over fire & energy)

Shortage: body heavy or chilled, thoughts drag-gy, unenthusiastic

Excess: hot, hyper, flitting thoughts, insomnia, anger, snappishness.



Astrological Rulers: Venus, Saturn

Keys: Law Principle, Solidity, Auriel (“Lord of Awe”)

Rules: birth & death, body, growth, nature, stones & metals, material things, caves, chasms, silence, graves, fields, Sanguine; Sensation; calm, imperturbable

Virtues: strength, endurance, commitment, responsibility, thoroughness, practicality, wisdom, patience, sense of timing

Vices: dullness, lack of conscience, melancholy, boredom, inertia, stagnation, hoarding of resources (including information)

Yule & Midnight
North, Boreas
Colour: green



Astrological Rulers: Venus, Moon

Keys: Love Principle, Fertility, Gabriel (turns force into form)

Rules: emotions, love, sorrow, courage, astral planes, clairvoyance, tides, oceans, pools, streams, wells, womb, Melancholic; Feeling; strong, excitatory

Virtues: compassion, tranquility, tenderness, forgiveness, modesty, fluidity in creativity, receptivity, influence

Vices: self-indulgence, negligence, cowardice, indifference, instability, moodiness, infatuation, easily put upon, delusions

Autumn & Sunset
West, Zephyrus
Colour: blue

Symbols: willlow, dolphin, fish, water snakes, sea birds, myrrh, ferns, rushes

Tool: cup

Spirits: undines under Neksa (elusive at first, flowing & difficult to understand, watch politely and learn)

Shortage: deep body dryness, hotness, mind & body feel seperated, no empathy

Excess: body puffiness, sinus (etc.) flows, mood swings, “touchiness”, apathy


How to Use Planetary Hours


It would seem to be stating the obvious to say that the day is divided into 24 hours, however, planetary hours are not the same as the 24 hours of 60 minutes we are familiar with. Planetary hours consist of 12 daylight hours and 12 dark hours, thus, depending on the times of sunset and sunrise these hours can be more or less than the usual 60 minutes.


It is necessary to work out the planetary hours for whichever day we wish to work in order to be sure our working has the correct planetary influence. To do this we make notes of the times on which the sun rises and sets on the day we wish to work, and the time of the sunrise for the following day.


To find the daylight planetary hours we calculate the exact number of minutes between sunrise and sunset, for example if the sun rises at 04:18 and sets at 19:52 then there would be 15 hours and 34 minutes, therefore, the number of minutes between sunrise and sunset would be 934. This number is then divided by twelve to give twelve equal periods of time (the planetary hours for that day) 934 / 12 = 77.8 minutes.


The dark planetary hours are found in much the same way, so; if the sun sets at 19:52 and rises again the next morning at 04:20 then there would be 8 hours and 28 minutes. Therefore the number of minutes between sunset and sunrise would be 508 Divided by twelve this gives us dark planetary hours of 42.3 minutes each.


We now find the planet with the influence we wish to use in the planetary hours chart and work out what time of day we should do our working. The hours of influence for each planet are as follows:


Daylight Planetary Hours

Hour Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
1 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
2 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
3 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars
4 Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
5 Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus
6 Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury
7 Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon
8 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
9 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
10 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars
11 Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
12 Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus


Dark Planetary Hours

Hour Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
1 Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury
2 Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon
3 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
4 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
5 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars
6 Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
7 Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus
8 Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury
9 Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon
10 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
11 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
12 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars


The influences for each of the planets are:

Sun: Healing, protection, success, illumination, magickal power, physical energy

Moon: Sleep, psychic dreams, psychic awareness, gardening, love, healing, fertility, peace, compassion, family, spirituality


Mercury: Intelligence, eloquence, divination, study, self improvement, breaking negative habits, communication, wisdom

Venus: Love, fidelity, reconciliation, beauty, youth, happiness, pleasure, luck, friendship, meditation


Mars: Courage, healing, physical strength, politics, sexual energy, protection, defensive magick


Jupiter: Spirituality, meditation, money, prosperity

Saturn: Protection, purification, longevity, visions


Days of the Week


MONDAY: Planet – Moon Sign – Cancer Colors – Silver, White, Gray Incense – African Violet, Honeysuckle, Myrtle, Willow, Wormwood Herbs/Plants – Night flowers, Willow Root, Orris Root, Birch, Motherwort, Vervain, White Rose, White Iris Stones – Carnelian, Quartz Crystal, Moonstone, Aquamarine, Pearl, Flourite, Geodes Domains – Psychic sensitivity, womens mysteries, tides, waters, emotional issues, agriculture, animals, female fertility, messages, theft, reconcilliations, voyages, dreams, merchandise

TUESDAY: Planet: Mars Sign: Aries, Scorpio Incense: Dragon’s Blood,Patchouli Colors: Red, Orange Herbs/Plants: Red Rose,Cock’s Comb,Pine, Daisy, Thyme Pepper Stones: Carnelian, Bloodstone,Ruby,Garnet,Pink Tourmaline Domains: Courage, Physical Strength, Revenge, Military Honors, Surgery and the Breaking of Negative Spells, Matrimony, War, Enemies, Prison, Vitality, Assertiveness

WEDNESDAY: Planet: Mercury Sign: Virgo Incense: Jasmine, Lavender, Sweet Pea Colors: Orange, Light Blue, Grey, Yellow, Violet Stones: Aventurine, Bloodstone, Hematitie, Moss Agate Sodalite Herbs/Plants: Fern, Lavender, Hazel, Cherry, Perriwinkle Domains: Communication, Divination, Writing, Knowledge, Business Transactions, Debt, Fear,Loss, Travel, Money Matters

THURSDAY: Planet: Jupiter Sign: Sagittarius, Pisces Incense: Cinnamon, Musk, Nutmeg, Sage Colors: Purple, Royal Blue, Indigo Stones: Sugilite, Amethyst, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli Sapphire Herbs/Plants: Cinnamon, Beech, Buttercup, Coltsfoot, Oak Domains: Luck, Happiness, Health, Legal Matters, Male Fertility, Treasure and Wealth, Honor, Riches, Clothing Desires, Leadership, Public Activity, Power, Success

FRIDAY: Planet: Venus Sign: Libra, Taurus Incense: Strawberry, Sandalwood, Rose, Saffron, Vanilla Colors: Green, Pink, Aqua Stones: Rose Quartz, Moonstone, Pink Tourmaline, Peridot, Emerald, Jade Herbs/Plants: Pink Rose, Ivy, Birch, Heather, Clematis, Sage, Violet, Water Lilly Domains: Love, Romance, Marriage, Sexual Matters, Physical Beauty, Friendship and Partnerships, Strangers, Heart

SATURDAY: Planet: Saturn Sign: Capricorn, Aquarius Incense: Black Poppy Seed, Myrrh Colors: Black, Grey, Indigo Herbs/Plants: Myrrh, Moss, Hemlock, Wolfsbane, Coltsfoot, Nightshade, Fir Stones: Jet, Smokey Quartz, Amethyst, Black Onyx Snowflake Obsidian, Lava, Pumice Domains: Spirit Communications, Meditation, Psychic Attack or Defense, Locating Lost Things and Missing Persons, Building, Life, Doctrine, Protection, Knowledge, Authority, Limitations, Boundries, Time and Death

SUNDAY: Planet – Sun Sign – Leo Colors – Gold, Yellow, Orange, White Incense – Lemon, Frankincense Herbs/Plants – Marigold, Heliotrope, Sunflower, Buttercup, Cedar, Beech, Oak Stones – Carnelian, Citrine, Tigers Eye, Amber, Quartz Crystal, Red Agate Domains – Growth, advancements, enlightment, rational thought, exorcism, healing, prosperity, hope, money



Direction: East Rules: The mind, all mental, intuitive and psychic work, knowledge, abstract learning, theory, windswept hills, plains, windy beaches, high mountain peaks, high towers, wind and breath.

Time: Dawn

Season: Spring

Colors: White, bright yellow, crimson, blue-white.

Zodiac: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius.

Tools: Wand, Incense, Creative Visualization (Some traditions align the Athame and Sword with Air but most Celtic traditions align them with Fire).

Spirits: Sylphs, Zephyrs and Fairies who inhabit the world of trees, flowers, winds, breezes, mountains. Ruled by King Paralda.

Angel: Michael

Wind: Eurus

Sense: Smell

Jewel: Topaz

Incense: Galbanum.

Plants: Frankincense, myrrh, pansy, primrose, vervain, violet, yarrow.

Tree: Aspen.

Animals: Birds.

Goddesses: Aradia, Arianrhod, Cardea, Nuit, Urania.

Gods: Enlil, Khephera, Mercury, Shu, Thoth.

Ritual Work: Dawn, Sunrise, Spring, Knowledge, Inspiration, Hearing, Harmony, Herbal Knowledge, Plant Growth, Intellect, THought, Ideas, Travel, Freedom, Revealing the Truth, Finding Lost Things, movement, Psychic Abilities

FIRE Direction: South.

Rules: Energy, spirit, heat, flame, blood, sap, life, will, healing and destroying, purification, bonfires, hearth fires, candle flames, sun, deserts, volcanoes, eruptions, explosions.

Time: Noon.

Season: Summer.

Colors: Red, gold, crimson, orange, white (the sun’s noon light).

Zodiac: Aries, Leo, Saggitarius.

Tools: Dagger/Athame, Lamp or Candles, Censer, Burned Herbs or Requests on Paper (some traditions align the Wand with fire, but most Celtic ones align it with Air).

Spirits: Salamanders, Firedrakes, the consciousness of flames; Ruled by King Djin.

Angel: Ariel.

Wind: Notus.

Sense: Sight.

Jewel: Fire Opal.

Incense: Olibanum.

Plants: Garlic, hibiscus, mustard, nettle, onion, red peppers, red poppies.

Tree: Almond, in flower.

Animals: Fire-breathing dragons, lions, horses (when their hooves strike sparks).

Goddesses: Brigit, Hestia, Pele, Vesta.

Gods: Agni, Hephaestus, Horus, Vulcan.

Ritual Work: Summer, Noon, Freedom, Change, Sight, Perception, Vision, Illumination, Learning, Love, Will, Passion, Sexuality, Energy, Authority, Healing, Destruction, Purification


WATER Direction: West.

Rules: Emotions, feelings, love, courage, daring, sorrow, the ocean, the tides, lakes, pools, streams, and rivers, springs and wells, intuition, the unconscious mind, the womb, generation, fertility.

Time: Twilight.

Season: Autumn.

Colors: Blue, blue-green, green, gray, indigo, black.

Zodiac: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces.

Tools: Cup, Cauldron, Goblet, Mirrors, The Sea.

Spirits: Undines, Nymphs, Mermaids and Mermen who live in the sea, lakes, streams, and springs, and Fairies of the lakes, ponds and streams; Ruled by King Niksa or Necksa.

Angel: Raphael.

Wind: Zephyrus.

Sense: Taste.

Jewel: Aquamarine.

Incense: Myrrh.

Plants: Ferns, lotus, mosses, rushes, seaweed, water lilies, and all water plants.

Tree: Willow.

Animals: Dragons (as serpents), dolphins and porpoises, fish, seals and sea mammals, water-dwelling snakes, all water creatures and sea birds.

Goddesses: Aphrodite, Isis, Mariamne, Mari, Tiamat.

Gods: Dylan, Ea, Llyr, Manannan, Osiris, Neptune, Poseidon.

Ritual Work: Fall, Sunset, Plants, Healing, Emotions, Taste, Smell, Absorbing, Communion with the Spiritual, Purification, The Subconsious mind, Love, Emotions, Pleasure, Friendships, Marriage, Fertility, Happiness, Sleep, Dreams, The Psychic


EARTH Direction: North.

Rules: The body, growth, nature, sustenance, material gain, money, creativity, birth, death, silence, chasms, caves, caverns, groves, fields, rocks, standing stones, mountains, crystal, jewels, metal.

Time: Midnight.

Season: Winter.

Colors: Black, brown, green, white.

Zodiac: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn.

Tools: Pentacle/Pentagram, Salt, Images, Stones, Gems, Trees, Gem Magick.

Spirits: Gnomes, Dwarfs and Trolls who inhabit the interior of the Earth and are the consciousness of precious gems, minerals and the Earth herself. Ruled by King Ghob, Gob, or Ghom.

Angel: Gabriel.

Wind: Boreas, Ophion.

Sense: Touch.

Jewel: Rock crystal, salt.

Incense: Storax.

Plants: Comfrey, ivy, grains: barley, oats, corn, rice, rye, wheat.

Tree: Oak.

Animals: Cow or bull, bison, snakes (earth-dwelling), stag.

Goddesses: Ceres, Demeter, Geae, Mah, Nephthys, Persephone, Prithivi, Rhea, Rhiannon.

Gods: Adonis, Athos, Arawn, Cernunnos, Dionysus, Marduk, Pan, Tammuz.

Ritual Work: Night, Midnight, WInter, Riches, Treasures, Surrendering of self-will, Touch, Empathy, Incorporation, Business, Prosperity, Employment, Stability, Success, Fertility, Money


SPIRIT/ETHER Direction: Center and circumference, throughout and about.

Rules: Transcendence, transformation, change, everywhere and nowhere, within and without, the void, immanence.

Time: Beyond time, all time is one.

Season: The turning wheel.

Colors: Clear, white, black.

Tools: Cauldron.

Sense: Hearing.

Plant: Mistletoe.

Tree: The flowering almond.

Animal: Sphinx.

Goddesses: Isis, the Secret Name of the Goddess, Shekinah.

Gods: Akasha, IAO, JHVH


THE SUN – Correspondences The days and hours of the Sun impart an influence favorable to acts related to Active vitality. During an eclipse of the Sun, nothing must be undertaken in the realm of magic, as it is an unfortuante time and things fail therein. Spells are initiated at the Sun hour to bring swift success, fast luck, new money, instant action, etc. The beneficial currents of “Sun Power” are ideal for activities dealing with advancement of position, political influence, self-aggrandizement, theatrical success and glory, promotional schemes and release from capitivity. The Sun hours are ideal for meditation upon Spiritual cleaning and revitalization.

Rules: Health, Vitality, Ego, Heart, Creativity, Superiors, Power, Success, Advancement, Leadership, Friendship, Growth, Light, Joy; Success; Advancement; leadership; natural power; friendship; growth; healing; light; pride; prosperity; vitality; personal fulfillment; fame; monetary gain; health; self-confidence; hope; immediate family; life-energy; money; favor; honor; promotion; support of those in power; creativity; active change. Detriment: Pride, Arrogance, Bigotry Element: Fire Day of the Week: Sunday Number: 1, 6 and, 21 Astrological Sign: Leo Colour: Gold, Yellow Metal: Gold, Brass Gods: Apollo, Helios, Hyperion, Lugh, Ra, Semesh, Vishnu-Krishna-Rama, Horus, Bel, Adonis Goddesses: Amaterasu, Brigit, Bast, Ilat, Sekhmet, Theia Crystals: Tiger’s Eye, Citrine, Topaz, Carnelian, Amber, Orange Calcite, Topaz, Yellow Diamond, Jacinth, Goldstone, Chrysoleth, Amber, Tiger’s Eye, Sunstone, Diamond, Zircon Herbs & Oils: Frankincense, Clove, Chamomile, Bay, Angelica, Cinnamon, Eyebright, Galangal, Juniper, Life Everlasting, Mistletoe, Rosemary, St. John’s Wort. Marigold, Heliotrop, Cedar, Cloves, cinnamon, frankincense, laurel, olibanum,Egyptian Kyphi, Heliotrope, Orange blossoms, Ambergris, Musk, Mastic, Vanilla Plants: Acacia, Almond, Angelic, Artus Fruits, Ash, Bay Laurel, Benzoin, Cassia, Chamomile, Centaury, Sweet Cicley, Cinnamon, Clove, Frankincense, Ginger, Heliotrope, Honey, Juniper, Lovage, Marigold, Mastic, Meadow Rue, Mistletoe, Myrrh, Oak, Patchouli. Rosemary, Rue, Saffron, St. John’s Wort, Storax, Sunflower, Tormentil, Vine, Walnut Trees: Acacia, Ash, Bay Laurel, Birch, Broom Animals: Child, Eagl, Lion, Phoenix, Sparrow, Hawk Tarot: The Sun Musical tone: C sharp Intelligence: Nakhiel Tone: Re, D Letter: B Kabbalistic Spheres: 6 Tiphqreth – Beauty Angels: Raphael, Malachim Spirits: Sorath and Och Chant: PHYSICAL CHAT (Dragons) Strength of Body and Vitality I Ask now that you give to me. Sun Dragon, Look on me with favor That Power, Riches I may savor.

SUN: { Spiritual Key: HARMONY }


THE MOON – Correspondences Rules: Clairvoyance, Sleep, Psychic dreams, Reveals Secrets, emotions, Influence over general public, Astral travel, Imagination, Women’s mysteries, Birth, Fertility Reincarnation, The days and hours of the Moon are most favorable to acts related to Vegatative activity – security, fore-knowledge, journeys. The Moon reflects, inspires and energizes emotions. Moon hours are good for casting spells for romance, sexual pursuits, etc. and for the desire to travel for pleasure. The Moon’s effect is also hypnotic, and lends an influence which inclines toward vulnerability, therefore rendering the weak or uninformed open to attack and capable of being wounded or controlled by another.

Detriment: Delusion Element: Water Day of the Week: Monday Number: 3 and 9 Astrological Sign: Cancer Colour: Silver, White, Light Purple New: White, Grey, Silver Waxing: White Full: Red or Green Waning: Black Metal: Silver Gods: Atlas, Khonsu, Sin Goddesses: Artemis, Brizo, Ceridwen, Diana, Hathor, Isis, Hecate, Levanah, Lunah, Mari, Nimue, Pasophae, Phoebe, Selene, Anna NEW: Artemis, Nimue FULL: Diana, Mari WANING: Hecate, Anna Crystals: Moonstone, Pearl, Abalone, Aquamarine, Moonstone, Pearl, Mother-of-Pearl, Quarta, Rock Crysal, Abalone, Opal Herbs & Oils: Jasmine, Lotus, Camphor, Frangipani, Orris root, Motherwort, Birch, Vervain, White Rose, Ginseng, Sandalwood, Wintergreen, Anise, Seasalt, Star Anise, Ginseng, Jasmine, Myrtle, Poppy, Sandalwood, Coconut, Plants: Banana, cabbage, chamomile, chickweed, cucumber, leafy vegatables, lotus, melons, mushrooms, myrtle, opium poppy, pumpkin, purslane, sea holly, seaweed, watercress, wild rose, wintergreen Tree: Willow Animals: Hare, Elephant, Cat Tarot: High Priestess Musical tone: G sharp Intelligence: Malkah be Tarshisim ve-ad Ruachoth Schechalim Tone: Ti, B Letter: S Kabbalistic Spheres: 9 yesod – Foundation Angels: Gabriel Spirits: Schad Barschemoth ha-Shartathan Chant:

MOON: { Spiritual Key: NURTURING } She who mothers. Protectress from psychic and physical harm.


MERCURY – Correspondences Rules: Communication, Intellect, Business, Writing, Contracts, Buying and selling, Information of all kinds, Wisdom, Cleverness, Creativity, Science, Memory, Mercury is “the manipulator.” It’s influence is favorable to all acts requiring adaptiveness – skills commerce, medicine, diplomacy, couseling, changes, etc. Mercury hours lend themselves adeptly to mental feats of all kinds, or to works aimed at bending the mind of another. Use to cast spells aimed at bringing about quick changes of all kinds, but it will work best when the Moon is in a mutable sign. If it is in a cardinal or fixed sign the work could fail and result in frustration or confession. To change bad luck to good, use a Mercury hour on a day of Venus. This is not for the chronically greedy, or the malcontent as if they are actually enjoying their due share of good luck but simply dont take advantage of the benefits or make good use of them the opposite, in order to teach a lesson. Remember, Venus leads toward Natural Order and wants to right things which are wrong or inequitable and Mercury maneuvers the change. This is also a good time for healing works, when the Moon is in Taurus, Virgo or Capricorn. Use a Mercury hour to seek forgiveness, and to make amends, when a strong change in attitudes is desired, or to cause people who have been feuding to make up and become friends. Also to cause troublesome-in-laws or relatives to altar their ways, or become reasonable. When the Moon is in conjuction with Uranus the Mercury hour is used to completely upset or wreck and establishment or trend. Detriment: Dishonesty, Deception Element: Air Day of the Week: Wednesday Number: 1, 2, 4 and 8 Astrological Sign: Virgo, Gemini Colour: Orange, The Whole Rainbow, Violet, Mixtures of Colors. Metal: Mercury, Aluminium Gods: Anubis, Coeus, Coyote, Elegba, Hermes, Lugi, Nabu, Mercury, Thoth, Woden Goddesses: Athena, Maat, Metis, Pombargira Crystals: Opal, Moss Agate, Aventurine, Sodalite, Flourite, Opal, Agate, Onyx, Carnelian, Citrine, Flourite, Selenite Herbs & Oils: Rosemary, Amber, Lilac, Lemon Peel, Agrimony, Anise, Betony, Dandelion, Hyssop, Juniper Berries, Mistletoe, Nutmeg, Sage, Lavender, Cherry, Periwinkle, Storax, Mace Plants: Caraway, carrots, cascara, cagrada, dill, elecampane, fennel, mandrake, marjoram, myrtle, parsley, pomegranate, velerian Trees: Hazel, Ash or Almond Animals: Hermaphrodite, jackal, twin serpents Tarot: The Magician Musical tone: D Intelligence: Tiriel Tone: ‘Mi, B Letter: C Kabbalistic Spheres: 8 chod – Glory Angels: Raphael (Some say Michael) Spirits: Taphthartharath Chant:

MERCURY: { Spiritual Key: INTELLECT }


VENUS – Correspondences Rules: Love, Pleasure, Female Sexuality, The Arts, Music, Beauty, Luxury, Scent, Social Affairs Detriment: Lechery, Coldness, Isolation, Love, Harmony, Sexuality, Friendship, Attraction, Pleasure, Unions, Beauty, Sensuality, Artistic Creations. Venus encourages the Natural Order of things, to protect Nature’s balance. The Venus days and hours are very favorably to anything related to physical perfection and harmony. While Venus has been regarded as the ideal power for love spells, this is a haphazard generalization, and must be given further consideration. Remember, Venus guards the Natural Order of things, so if the love desired does not in any way disrupt, or corrupt an existing family entity, and if the individuals have already known one another, are favorably matched, and simply need a little “boost” to encourage a true love to manifest and flourish, then Venus is the best influence to utilize such love spells. Also to be considered is the fertility aspect. If the person desiring to obtain the love of another is not serious to the extent of also being willing to assume the responsibility for home and family – that is to say, is only an affair or passion is what is really wanted – the result could be total disastrous – an unwanted pregnancy, a jealous and vindictive lover who is difficult to get loose from, etc. For such spells of attraction or romantic fascination, it is best to forget the Venus influence until such time as it is desired to make the union permanent, or binding. Meanwhile, use the Mercury (mind-bending manipulator) and Moon (if ascination) influences, the Moon being ideal for romanic and emotional vulnerability. Venus hours are fine to cast spells for fertility – of plants, animals or humans, also corporate entities. Also to bring peace in the home, average good luck that has been lacking, anything dealing with music, arts and crafts, home economics and beauty. Element: Earth, Water Day of the Week: Friday Number: 3, 5, 6 and 7 Astrological Sign: Taurus, Libra Colour: Green, Indigo, Rose Metal: Copper, Loadstone Gods: Eros, Oceanus, Robin Hood, Pan Goddesses: Aphrodite, Beltis, Asherah, Freia, Hathor, Inanna, Isis, Ishtar, Mari, Matiamne, Oshun, Tethys, Venus Crystals: Emerald, Rose Quartz (venus rules the acquisition of all gems), Amber, Emerald, Malachite, Jade, Peridot, Aventurine Herbs & Oils: Rose, Sandalwood, Ylang Ylang, Vanilla, Cardamon, Benzoin, Bergamot, Boneset, Catnip, Dittany, Gardenia, Heather, Hibiscus, Kava-Kava, Motherwort, Rose- Geranium, Yarrow, Almond Oil, Aloes, Apple, Birch, Elderberry, Feverfew, Geranium, Mint, Mugwort, Pennyroyal, Plantain, Raspberry, Strawberry, Tansy, Verbena, Vervain, Violet, Dragons Blood, Basil, Damiana, Passion Flower, Benzoin, Jasmine, Rose Plants: Acacia Flowers, Almond Oil, Aloes, Apple, Birch, Daffodil, Damask Rose, Elderberry, Feverfew, Fig, Geranium, Mint, Mugwort, Olive Oil, Pennyroyal, Plantain, Raspberry, Rose, Strawberry, Tansy, Thyme, Verbena, Vervain, Violet Trees: Apple and Quince Animals: Dove, Lynx Tarot: The Empress Musical tone: A Intelligence: Hagiel Tone: La, E Letter: Q Kabbalistic Spheres: 7 netzach – Splendor Angels: Hanael Spirits: Kedemel Chant:

VENUS: { Spiritual Key LOVE }


MARS – Correspondences Rules: Male Sexuality, Strength, Lust, Anger, Destruction, Medical Issues, Surgery, Competition, Conflict, Sports Strength; Struggle; War; Anger; Conflict; Aggression; Victory; Energy; Ambition; Goals; Upheaval; Strife; Arguments. Mars is the MOTIVATOR. It has powerful positive and negative influences, and is a force to be considered with utmost CAUTION. Mars does not know nor care about right or wrong, It only strives after VICTORY. It incites courage, bravery and vinditiveness. It is inclined toward combativeness and its power favors domination, politics, athletics, surgery, industry, difficulties in lawsuits, etc. It seems to furnish the necessary drive and force required to CONQUER or WIN. Often called the angry red planet cause of its reddish glow, its Energy is powerful and difficult to control. Once involked, its hard to stop and will not rest until it vanquishes all obstacles in its path. When working rituals, make certain that this is the effect you desire because there is no “going back” Once you’ve invoked the energy of Mars. Martian influence is a PROTECTOR par excellence and the Mars hour is useful for petitions of protection against enemies, the “Evil Eye” and demonic attack or possession. Time to launch an all-out attack on an enemy or adversary. Remember, this spell is like the Gladiator – it will drive to the KILL if uncontrolled and is very likely to leave a trail of blood in its wake! Therefore, if it is only desired to thwart, or inhibit another’s actions, without actually hurting the person, then Saturn would be better. Always carefully consider the Karmic aspects of Mars’ influence, one is entitled only to like kind of retribution – no more! Any “overdraught” will be subject to the Law of Three!

Controlling Mars: You must learn to modify it with other Planetary or zodiacal influences. Example: Mercury or Venus, with a Mars Hour and The Moon in an Air Sign to combat in Justice for a favorable outcome (during the New Moon, 1st Quarter) Mars-Sun Cusp: Seek paroles or liberation, whether deserved or not. Spell cast to obtain freedom is well-timed if the power can be released at the precise moment of the cusp, with the Moon in a fire sign. For Peaceful seperations or hand-partings, choose a day of Venus, Moon full-to-waning in an Earth Sign with the Mars-Sun Infuence Jupiter-Mars Cusp: Good for Psycho-kinetic Magic (mind over matter) – change the weather, divert storms, influence gaming devices to win and to bring about “miraculous” (spontaneous) healings, etc. With the Sun in an Air Sign, the Moon in a Water Sign. Detriment: Violence, Anger, Element: Fire Day of the Week: Tuesday Number: 2, 3,5 and 16 Astrological Sign: Aries, Scorpio Colour: Red Metal: Iron, Steel Gods: Ares, Crius, Heracles, Mars, Nergal, Horus, Tyr Goddesses: Anath, Brigit, Diana, Morrigan Crystals: Ruby, Garnet, Bloodstone, Jasper Herbs & Oils: Pine, Wormwood, Tobacco, Heal All, Ginger, Blessed Thistle, Cayenne, Garlic, Pepper, Cypress, Pine, Tobacco Plants: All-Heal, aloes, asafoetida, basil, betony, capers, chiles, coriander, dragon’s blood, gention, garlic, mustard, onion, pepper, radish, sarsaparilla, taragon Trees: Holly, Kerm, Oak Animals: Basilisk Tarot: The Tower Musical tone: D Intelligence: Graphiel Tone: Do, C Letter: T Kabbalistic Spheres: 5 Gevurah – Strength, Severity Angels: Zamael Spirits: Bartzabel Chats:

MARS: { Spiritual Key DYNAMIC }


JUPITER – Correspondences Rules: Success, Abundance, Money, Growth, Parties, Visions, Gambling, Leadership; Politics; Power; Honor; Royalty; Public Acclaim and Fame; Responsibility; Wealth; Business; Success; Health; Love; Expansion; Growth. Jupiter’s influence is predominantly joviality, and is favorable to all acts of socialbility dealings with family, opportunity, group enterprise, civic functions. Jupiter’s effect is one of expansion. This is a concept which often misleads most into believing that everything about it is good. Remember, Jupiter brings more – abundance! But it is more of the same that which exists, not something different. It does NOT activate change. Therefore to invoke Jupiter on behalf of someone who is already suffering, or lacking, would bring about total despair, a poverty. It’s the influence under which “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer,” so use caution. It will bring a bumper crop if the seeds have been properly sown, and the field well tended; but it wont grow hair on a billiard ball – only a nice shine. Cast spells for “increase” during Jupiter hours. But remember, there has to be something in existing to increase. So if it is a money spell, use a dollar bill, or bank book (never depleted) for a “target” or “seed”. If the desired increase is for physical strength or stamina, move the time closer to the Jupiter-Mars cusp. The Moon must be waxing in an Earth sign for any increase. Jupiter is used from Winter Solstice to Vernal Equinox for power, luck, success and things the Sun is used for ordinarily, as the Sun’s power is weaker during this time. Jupiter’s hours are good for spells to increase Male fertility in humans or animals. For more verility use the Jupiter-Mars cusp. Jupiter hours are good for turning a good business into a “bonanza” or to achieve a raise in salary or promotion. Also for matters of family reunion. Jupiter’s influence would be good to put a”fat” spell on an individual who is egotistically and obnoxiously vain about his or her slender physique. It would certainly teach a little tolerence and sympathy for those not so fortunately blessed. When someone is inclined to become fettered with the accumulation of too much of anything, abanishing ritual may be prefiormed to rid themof the prevelance of the Jupiter’s influence. This must be done with the Moon waning in Capricorn, Gemini or Virgo. Detriment: Greed, Wastefullness Element: Air, Fire Day of the Week: Thursday Number: 4 and 5 Astrological Sign: Sagittarius Colour: (Deep)Blue, (Royal)Purple Metal: Tin, Bronze Gods: Bel, Eurymedon, Jupiter, Marduk, Thor, Zeus Goddesses: Isia, Hera, Juno, Themis Crystals: Lapis Lazuli, Amethyst, Turquoise, Sugilite, Saphire, Sodalite, Azurite, Amethyst, Chrysolite, Sapphire, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli, Azurite Herbs & Oils: Aloe, Nutmeg, Sage, Melissa, Cedar, Cinamon, Agrimony, Anise, Betony, Dandelion, Hyssop, Juniper Berries, Linden, Mint, Mistletoe, Cedar, Nutmeg Plants: Agrimony, anise, ash, balm, betony, bloodroot, borage, cinquefoil, clover, dandelion, hyssop, Juniper berries, mint, Mistletoe, nutmeg Trees: Oak Animals: Unicorn Tarot: The Wheel of Fortune Musical tone: F sharp Intelligence: Iophiel Tone: So, A Letter: D Kabbalistic Spheres: Angels: Sachiel Spirits: Hismael Chant:

JUPITER: {Spiritual Key: MERCURY }


SATURN – Correspondences Rules: Gaining the Astral Plane, Real Estate, Banks, Debts, Institutions, Obstacles, Limitations, Binding, Knowledge, Death, Buildings, Time, Structures, Discipline, Obstacles, limitations, binding, knowledge, death, buildings, history, time, structures, Karmic Debts, Magickal Knowledge, self-discipline, sacred wisdom, longevity, the abstract law, finding lost items or stolen goods, making someone reveal secrets or hidden knowledge (for benevolent purposes) and achieving quite “impossible” feats designed to bestow honor and dignity. Influence is practical, saving and beneficial – “crystallization” Slows down, thwarts, restricts, limits according to Natural Law. Meditations to obtain wisdom, for self-control, or to lower the blood pressure or pulse-rate. Saturn Planetary Hours favor the collection of debts. When the Moon is in an Earth sign, cast spells to reap benefits and rewards from efforts expended, or to obtain needed relief from want. Saturn-Jupiter Cusp with Moon in Taurus is ideal time for peace making. This cusp favors benevolent leadership, practical idealism, brotherly love, selflessness and philanthropic acts. Use this time to “help” in any way and it will bring an appropriate spiritual reward. Moon wanes in Scorpio – Saturn influence is good for casting spells to bind, thwart, or cause someone to cease and desist from a particular action and “to freeze” someone or something in a present condition or state. This could result in the arrest of a progressive disease. (This spell would have to be re-inforced under the Sun-Venus influence.) Detriment: Oppression, Pain Element: Earth, Water Day of the Week: Saturday Number: 3 and 7 Astrological Sign: Capricorn Colour: Black, Grey, Blue Metal: Lead, Pewter Gods: Bran, Cronus, Ninib, Saturn, YHVH Goddesses: Cybele, Demeter, Hecate, Hera, Isis, Kali, Nephthys, Rhea Crystals: Onyx, Black Tourmaline, Apache Tears, Obsidian, Pearl, Star Sapphire, Agates, Lodestone, Hematite, Jet Herbs & Oils: Mandrake, Patchouli, Thyme, Comfrey, Cypress, Hemlock, Moss, Mullein, Musk, Scullcap, Witch Hazel, Civet, Ironweed, Myrrh Plants: Aconite (monkshood or wolfsbane), beets, bistort (dragon-wort), confrey, cypress, Helleboro, hemlock, horsetail, hemp, henbane, mandrake, marijuana, opium poppy, nightshade, pathcouli, Solomon’s Seal, Thyme, Yew Trees: Alder, Pomegranate Animals: Crow, Raven Tarot: The World Musical tone: D Intelligence: Agiel Tone: Fa, G Letter: F Kabbalistic Sphere: 3-Binah (Understanding) Angels: Cassiel Spirits: Zazel Chant:

SATURN: { Spiritual Key: WISDOM }


URANUS – Correspondences Rules: Freedom, Independence, Change, Sufficience, Sovereignty, Freedom, Originality Detriment: Lonliness, Melancholiness, Bordom, Desparation, Mistrust of Self, Rebellion, Instability Element: Air Day of the Week: Saturday Number: 7 and 10 Astrological Sign: Aquarius Colour: Blue, Electric Blue, Yellow Metal: Uranium (Radioactive. Poison. Deadly) Gods: Zeus, Pan Goddesses: Isis Crystals: Zircon, Amber, Amethyst, Garnet, Aventurine, Diamond Herbs & Oils: Snowdrop, Foxglove, Valerian, Clove, Rosemary, Tree of Heaven, Hellebore, Morning Glory, Houseleek, Sage, Wintergreen, Caraway Plants: Clove, Rosemary, Tree of Heaven, , Sweet Woodruff, Mistletoe. Trees: Animals: Alligator, Crocodile, Boar, Bear, Cat Tarot: The Hermit Musical Note: B sharp Intelligence: Tone: Letter: Kabbalistic Spheres: Angels: Spirits: Chant:

URANUS: { Spiritual Key: The AWAKNER }


NEPTUNE – Correspondences Rules: Inspiration, Dreams, Affiliation, Friends, Creativity, Compassion Detriment: Drifting from Reality, Absent Mindedness, Carelessness, Stubbourness Element: Water Day of the Week: Thursday Number: 8 and 12 Astrological Sign: Pisces Colour: Purple, Blue, White Metal: Iron, Bronze Gods: Neptune, Goddesses: Ishtar Crystals: Sapphire, Amethyst, Coral, Jade Herbs & Oil: Lilac, clove, Sage, Violet, Lily Carnation, Heliotrope, Poppy, Clove, Nutmeg Plants: Plants connected to the sea, sea anemones, seaweed, sea grasses, pond and underwater plants, cowbane, parsley, mosses, ferns. Trees: Animals: Sea animals like fish, crustaceans, octopi, Tarot: The Emperor Musical Tone: D Intelligence: Tone: Letter: Kabbalistic Spheres: Angels: Spirits: Chant:

NEPTUNE: { Spiritual Key: FAITH }


PLUTO – Correspondences Rules: Rebirth, Self-Knowledge, Spirituality, Sexuality, Renewal, Desire Detriment: Sexual Abuse, Death, Arrogance, Insolence, Obsession, Destruction, Element: Water Day of the Week: Tuesday Number: 9, 11, 12 and 17 Astrological Sign: Scorpio Colour: Dark Red, Brown, Black, Grey, Purple Metal: Tin, Steel Gods: Osiris, Pluto, Kronos, The Titans Goddesses: Persephone, Gaea Crystals: Topaz, Ruby, Jet, Garnet, Bloodstone, Topaz, Aventurine, Herbs & Oil: Chrysanthemum, Pine, Rosemary, Dogwood, Nettles, Wormwood, Basil, Vanilla, Cypress, Mandrake, Bulb and Root plants, Basil, belladonna, hemlock, hellebore, wolfsbane, wormwood, poppies, aphrodisiac plants, coriander, birthwort, henbane, leek. Plants: Male fern, Silverwood Trees: Cybpress, Pine Animal: Fox Tarot: The Pope Musical Tone: A Intelligence: Tone: La, A Letter: Kabbalistic Spheres: Angels: Uriel Spirits: Chant: PLUTO: { Spiritual Key: REGENERATION }

The Nature of Our Ways

The Nature of Our Ways

Whenever possible, hold the rites in forests, seashores, mountain tops, desert
plains, or near tranquil lakes or rivers, for these places are sacred. If this
is not possible, a garden or inner chamber will suffice, if it is prepared in
advance with fumes, flowers, and ornamentation.

Seek out wisdom in books, rare manuscripts, and cryptic poems if you wish, but
more importantly, seek wisdom in the simple stone, fragile herb, in the cries
of birds, and in the howls of the wild. Listen to the whisperings of the wind
and rain and the roar of the water if you would discover true magick, for it
is here that the Old Ones preserve the secrets of the ages.

Books contain words-trees contain wisdom and energy that books never dreamed

True wisdom and magick comes from the living, and in the circle of life.

Ever remember that the Old Ways are constantly revealing themselves to us.
Therefore be as the river willow that bends and sways with the wind. That
which remains changeless shall outlive its spirit, but that which evolves and
grows shall shine for centuries.

There can never be a monopoly on wisdom. Therefore, share what you will of our
ways with others who seek them, but hide mystic lore from the eyes of those
who would destroy, for to do otherwise increases their destructive abilities.

Mock not the ways and beliefs of others, for how can you really know if yours
is truly of greater wisdom or power.

Always ensure that your actions and words are honorable, for all that you do
shall return to you three-fold good or bane. Remember that you are a direct
representative of your religion, as you are, they will remember you and your’s

Be weary of those who would dominate and deceive you, who would control and
manipulate your workings and reverences. True reverence for the God and
Goddess occurs from within. Look with suspicion on any who would twist your
worship and beliefs for their own gain and glory. Welcome, though, any who
worship with love and caring in their hearts.

Honor ALL living things, for we are all of the bird, the bee, the cat, and the
fish. Destroy not life- Unless it is to preserve your own or the ones you love-
no exceptions.

…And this is the Nature of our Ways.

The Witches’ Creed

The Witches’ Creed,
by Doreen Valiente

Hear Now the words of the witches,
The secrets we hid in the night,
When dark was our destiny’s pathway,
That now we bring forth into light.

Mysterious water and fire,
The earth and the wide-ranging air,
By hidden quintessence we know them,
And will and keep silent and dare.

The birth and rebirth of all nature,
The passing of winter and spring,
We share with the life universal,
Rejoice in the magical ring.

Four times in the year the Great Sabbat
Returns, and the witches are seen
At Lammas and Candlemas dancing,
On May Eve and old Hallowe’en.

When day-time and night-time are equal,
Whensun is at greatest and least,
The four Lesser Sabbats are summoned,
And Witches gather in feast.

Thirteen silver moons in a year are,
Thirteen is the coven’s array.
Thirteen times at Esbat make merry,
For each golden year and a day.

The power that was passed down the age,
Each time between woman and man,
Each century unto the other,
Ere time and the ages began.

When drawn is the magical circle,
By sword or athame of power,
Its compass between two worlds lies,
In land of the shades for that hour.

This world has no right then to know it,
And world of beyond will tell naught.
The oldest of Gods are invoked there,
The Great Work of magic is wrought.

For the two are mystical pillars,
That stand at the gate of the shrine,
And two are the powers of nature,
The forms and the forces divine.

The dark and the light in succession,
The opposites each unto each,
Shown forth as a God and a Goddess:
Of this our ancestors teach.

By night he’s the wild wind’s rider,
The Horn’d One, the Lord of the Shades.
By day he’s the King of the Woodland,
The dweller in green forest glades.

She is youthful or old as she pleases,
She sails the torn clouds in her barque,
The bright silver lady of midnight,
The crone who weaves spells in the dark.

The master and mistress of magic,
That dwell in the deeps of the mind,
Immortal and ever-renewing,
With power to free or to bind.

So drink the good wine to the Old Gods,
And Dance and make love in their praise,
Till Elphame’s fair land shall receive us
In peace at the end of our days.

And Do What You Will be the challenge,
So be it Love that harms none,
For this is the only commandment.
By Magic of old, be it done!

Wiccan Rede

Wiccan Rede

Bide the Wiccan Laws we must
In Perfect Love and Perfect Trust.
Live and let live,
Fairly take and fairly give.
Cast the Circle thrice about
To keep the evil spirits out.
To bind the spell every time
Let the spell be spake in rhyme.
Soft of eye and light of touch,
Speak little, listen much.
Deosil go by the waxing moon,
Chanting out the Witches’ Rune.
Widdershins go by the waning moon,
Chanting out the baneful rune.
When the Lady’s moon is new,
Kiss the hand to her, times two.
When the moon rides at her peak,
Then your heart’s desire seek.
Heed the North wind’s mighty gale,
Lock the door and drop the sail.
When the wind comes from the South,
Love will kiss thee on the mouth.
When the wind blows from the West,
Departed souls will have no rest.
When the wind blows from the East,
Expect the new and set the feast.
Nine woods in the cauldron go,
Burn them fast and burn them slow.
Elder be the Lady’s tree,
Burn it not or cursed you’ll be.
When the Wheel begins to turn,
Let the Beltane fires burn.
When the Wheel has turned to Yule,
Light the log and the Horned One rules.
Heed ye Flower, Bush and Tree,
By the Lady, blessed be.
Where the rippling waters go,
Cast a stone and truth you’ll know.
When ye have a true need,
Hearken not to others’ greed.
With a fool no season spend,
Lest ye be counted as his friend.
Merry meet and merry part,
Bright the cheeks and warm the heart.
Mind the Threefold Law you should,
Three times bad and three times good.
When misfortune is enow,
Wear the blue star on thy brow.
True in Love ever be,
Lest thy lover’s false to thee.
Eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill:
An ye harm none, do what ye will.

Thirteen Goals of the Witch

Thirteen Goals of the Witch

I. Know Yourself
II. Know your Craft (Wicca)
III. Learn
IV. Apply knowledge with wisdom
V. Achieve balance
VI. Keep your words in good order
VII. Keep your thoughts in good order
VIII. Celebrate life
IX. Attune with the cycles of the Earth
X. Breath and eat correctly
XI. Exercise the body
XII. Meditate
XIII. Honor the God and Goddess


Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What is a Witch/Wiccan?

A. A practitioner of a nature-based religion and follows the seasonal cycles.
A Wiccan/Witch believes that the divine exists within them as well as outside, and feels a direct connection with the God/dess. Wiccans/Witches come from all racial, socio-economic and religious backgrounds. Many are collage educated and find employment in high tech jobs. Most are literate and read extensively. What we share is a loosely structured system of beliefs largely known as “Wicca”. Wiccans follow a guide of conduct called the “Wiccan Rede” (An it harm non, do as thou wilt).

Not all pagans are Wiccans, but all Wiccans are pagans.

Q: Are there “Black Witches” “White Witches”, good or evil Witches?

A: Witches are just Witches. As far as “good/White” or “evil/Black” Witches are concerned, as in any religious group, some are good and some are bad. We believe that each human is responsible for their own actions. To us, evil is a choice, a bad one, that someone might make, not a deity to blame our actions upon. If someone chooses to do evil, we believe they will be punished by the laws of karma. Also, if one is working for the good of others, the same laws will reward them. What goes around comes around. The majority of Witches believe in reincarnation, and that karma can follow a person from life to life. This helps to explain why terrible things happen to people.

Q: Do you worship Satan?

A: Satan is a part of the Christian/Jewish/Muslim religions. Since we are neither Christian, Jewish nor Muslim, we do not recognize the existence of “Satan”, so it would be impossible for us to worship him/it.

Q: So why do you use that “Satanic” symbol, the Pentagram/Pentacle?

A: The pentagram, or five pointed star, is not Satanic. It has been used for ages to symbolize many things. In Medieval times, some Christian knights used the pentagram as their symbol and to bring luck and  protection. Today it is used to represent a Masonic group, The Order of the Eastern Star. To modern Witches the pentagram means the five points correspond to the elements Air, Earth, Fire and Water with the top point corresponding to Spirit. The pentagram in a circle may represent a human with their legs and arms outstretched, surrounded by universal wisdom.

Q. What about the knives, wands and other things witches use?

A. The personal knife, often called an athame (pronounced: ah-tha-may)or black handled knife, is a tool used to direct energy and are never used to cut things in the physical world. Wands, Swords, Staffs are all used in the same way. The cauldron us used to symbolize the womb of life. Candles serve several purposes, they provide light, they represent deity, and they can symbolize a need in a spell, to name a few. Salt represents the Earth, and Water, the water of life.

Q: Do you do blood sacrifice?

A: The nature of sacrifice is to give up something of yours in order to get something more important. Wiccans do not feel that the life of another creature is ours to give therefore we would never kill an animal in ritual, as we would not consider it a sacrifice. Wiccans also believe that the Goddess is the Mother of All Life, so why would she want the destruction of one of her own creations.

Q: Do Witches cast spells?

A: Yes. Spells are just active prayers. Spells, much like prayers, are used to as a catalyst to create change in one’s own life or the life of a loved one.  Prayers are a petition to Deity to create the change. Spells are used to connect with our own divine selves, and use our own energies to create the change. Wiccan and/or Witches generally will not do a spell for anyone who has not asked and given them their permission. Spells such as love magic to gain a specific individual, or curses, are considered “manipulative”.  Anything manipulative that goes against the free will of another is considered wrong.

Q: Is Witchcraft a cult?

A: A cult by definition is a group of people who blindly follow a leader. As Wiccans tend to be free-thinkers and have no one person we consider to be the leader, we cannot be called a cult.

Q. What does it cost to become a Witch?

A. Many witches believe that one should never charge to teach another, for knowledge is free to all who seek it. Some teachers will charge a nominal fee to cover the costs of copies of lessons. Others use the cost of instruction to weed out those that are just curious or those wishing to learn “black magick” or “sex magick”. Some use their talents as a source of income, such as tarot readers and psychics. (not all tarot readers and psychics are wiccan or witches) Most wiccans believe that one should never be charged for an initiation. Tools that are purchased can be expensive. We encourage people to make most of their tools.

Q: Do you have ritual orgies?

A: No. These rumors come from our lack of taboos regarding sex. Wiccans have no rules which prohibit homosexuality, nudity or pre-marital sex, thus our beliefs are often misinterpreted. Sex as the generative force in nature is seen by Wiccans as something utterly sacred. Wiccans feel that the physical act of love is to be approached with great respect and responsibility. Many Witches/Wiccans are monogamous.

Q: Why do Witches wear black?

A: We all don’t. Most Wiccans seem to favor green and/or purple. Black, however, is in many cultures a symbol of clergy. Priests, Ministers and Rabbis all wear black as the main color of their ritual garb.

Q: Aren’t all Witches women and men Warlock’s?

A: No. Witches can be either men or women. The term “Warlock” is never used to describe a Wiccan as it is considered to be a religious slur. “Warlock” is an old Scottish word meaning “traitor” or “oath-breaker”. Men and Women alike are called Witches.

Q: Why would anyone want to be Wiccan?

A: People are generally drawn to Wicca for several reasons. Some people feel left out of mainstream religions because of the lack of feminine divinity. For them, the Wiccan concept of the Goddess as Mother of All Living Creatures fills that lack. As a nature based religion, Wicca also appeals to those who feel a strong need to “get back to the Earth” and places great importance on protecting the environment, which we are a part of, not apart from. People drawn to the mystical find Wicca much more accommodating as we do not see
anything unnatural about psychic ability or the use of magick to create needed changes in one’s life.

Q: How do you convert new Wiccans or Witches?

A: We don’t!!  Wiccans/Witches feel that the attempted conversion of others is wrong. (If someone tries to convert another to their religion, this assumes that the other person’s beliefs are not as valid as their own.) We feel that all paths are equally valid as long as they do not infringe upon the basic rights or free will of others. According to our beliefs, the individual should choose their own path. We do not try to manipulate others into our way of thinking, only try to educate others about our religion, that they may better understand us. We do, however try to help guide those who have already expressed an interest in the Wicca. By this we mean that you must seek out a practicing wiccan/witch to teach you (if you desire a teacher) and ask specifically to be taught.
Q: So what do Witches DO?

A: We live. We die. Some of us have children and (most of us) pay taxes. We practice our religion without forcing it on others. Most Wiccans/Witches are not open about their religion because they fear persecution for their beliefs.
There are large Wiccan churches, but the majority practice by themselves as Solitaries or work within small groups usually known as covens. Covens function not only as religious groups but also as extended families.

We hold our ceremonies or “circles” outdoors (when we can) as we feel that being with nature brings us closer to the divinity that creates it. Some of our beliefs may seem strange to most, but consider how strange and horrific the consumption of the blood and body of Christ may seem to one unfamiliar with Christianity. All that we ask is that we are allowed to practice our religion without prejudice as is our right guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States of America.